Paul Martin Lester

Photojournalism An Ethical Approach

(c) 1999

Adaskaveg, M. (1985, August). Of police and press. News Photographer, pp. 8-12.

Ahlhauser, J. (1990). A history of photojournalism ethics. In P. Lester (Ed.), NPPA special report: The ethics of photojournalism (pp. 2-5). Durham, NC: NPPA.

AP darkroom reception is mixed. (1990, April). Presstime, pp. 70-71.

Associated Press News Wire. (1989, November 13). Detroit, MI.

Baker, R. (1988, Summer). Portraits of a public suicide: Photo treatment by selected Pennsylvania dailies. Newspaper Research Journal, 21.

Barney, R. D., Black, J. J., Van Tubergen, G. N., & Whitlow, S. S. (1980, May). Journalism ethics and moral development: An early exploration. Paper presented before the International Communication Association, Acapulco, Mexico.

Barrett, B. (1988, May 9). Business ethics for sale. Newsweek, p. 56.

Bell, M. (1990 April 29). Kent State symbol still bitter today. The Orlando Sentinel, pp. A-1, A-8.

Bethune, B. (1983, November). Under the microscope. News Photographer, p. R-1.

Bird, M. (1923, June). Our psychic investigation in Europe-11. Scientific American, pp. 379-380, 428-429.

Black, J. (1922, October). The spirit-photograph fraud. Scientific American, pp. 224-225, 286.

Blackwood, R. (1983). The content of news photos: Roles portrayed by men and women. Journalism Quarterly, 60, 710-714.

Bossen, H. (1985, Summer). Zone V: Photojournalism, ethics, and the electronic age. Studies in Visual Communication, 30.

Boundaries of 'personal space.' " (1986, March). News Photographer, p. 24.

Brill, B. (1986, September). Town protests staged picture, "hooker image." News Photographer, pp. 4-8.

Brink, B. (1988, June). Question of ethics. News Photographer, pp. 21-33.

Brown, J. (1987, Spring/Summer). News photographs and the pornography of grief. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 80.

"Caption." (1989). Masterpieces of American Photography 1899-1982, Orlando, FL: Cornell Fine Arts Museum.

Chaney, S. (1989, October). How technology can alter photographs to deceive readers. In Solutions today for ethics problems tomorrow, A special report by the Ethics Committee of the Society of Professional Journalists, 1989 (p. 17). Greencastle, IN: Society of Professional Journalists.

Chapnick, H. (1982, August). We all know pictures can lie. Popular Photography, pp. 40-41.

Christians, C., Rotzoll, K., & Fackler, M. (1983). Media ethics. New York: Longman.

Clark, R. (1987, November 22). The underside of journalism. St. Petersburg Times, p. D-1.

Coleman, A. D. (1988, August 18). Private lives, private places: Street photography ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 60-66.

Colton, S. (1989, April 14). Iwo Jima flag-raising shot was not posed. Chicago Tribune, p. 67.

Contest instructions, 47th Annual Pictures of the Year. (1989). Durham, NC: NPPA.

Cook, F. J. (1971). The nightmare decade. New York: Random House.

Cookman, C. (1985). A voice is born. Durham, NC: NPPA.

Cooper, K. (1947, August 9). AP men urged to get character close-ups. Editor & Publisher, p. 48.

Coulson, D. (1988, July). Editors' attitudes and behavior toward journalism awards. Paper presented to the 76th Annual Convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Portland, OR.

Crisostomo, M. (1989, December). Walking a fine line. News Photographer, pp. 22-24.

Cunningham, R. (1989, November). A photographer defines boundaries. The Quill, p. 8-10.

Edmunds, S. (1966). Spiritualism: A critical survey. London: Aquarian Press.

Edom, C. (1980). Photojournalism. Dubuque, IA: Win. C. Brown.

Edwards, R. (1979). A theory of qualitative hedonism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Elliot-Boyle, D. (1985-1986, Fall/Winter). A conceptual analysis of ethics codes. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 25.

Elson, R. (1968). The world of Time, Inc: The intimate history of a publishing enterprise, 1941-1960.

New York: Atheneum.

Emery, M. C., Schuneman, R. S., & Emery, E. (Eds.). (1970). America's front page news 1690-1970.

New York: Doubleday.

Endres, F. (1988, Fall). Stress in Ohio newsrooms. Newspaper Research Journal, 9.

Ephron, N. (1978). Scribble scribble notes on the media. New York: Alfred Knopf.

The ethics and etiquette of photography. (1907, July 11). The Independent, pp. 107-109.

Evans, H. (1978). Pictures on a page. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Evans, M. (1989, November). An open question: "Emphatically accurate photos." News Photographer, pp. 26-28.

Faber, J. (October, 1977), How the NPPA came into being. News Photographer, p. 27.

Faber, J. (1978). Great news photos and the stories behind them. New York: Dover.

Faber, J. (1983, July). Sacrificial protest of Quang Due. News Photographer, p. 10.

The face and faith of Poland. (1982, April). National Geographic (A special supplement).

Farouk, E-B. (1982, February). Egypt's desert of promise. National Geographic, pp. 190-220.

Fitzgerald, M. (1988, November 5). Pretty as a picture. Editor & Publisher, p. 16, 34-35.

Flag raising on Iwo Jima. (1980, January). News Photographer, p. 13.

Flukinger, R., Schaaf, L., & Meacham, S. (1977). Paul Martin victorian photographer. Austin, TX:

University of Texas Press.

Fowler, T. (1990, March). Coverage of hurricane Hugo. Paper presented at the AEJMC Southeast

Colloquium, Charleston, SC.

Frassanito, W. (1978). Antietam: The photographic legacy of America's bloodiest day. New York:

Charles Scribner's.

Fulton, M. (Ed.). (1989). Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America. New York: Graphic Society.

Geiselman, A. (1959, August 15). Take pictures of tragic scene or flee from irate onlookers? Editor &

Publisher, p. 13.

Gelfand, L. (1989, January). Is color the culprit? News Photographer, p. 12.

Gernsheim, H. (1969). The history of photography. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Glasser, T., & Ettema, J. (1989, Summer). Common sense and education of young journalists. Journalism Educator, 18-25, 75.

Goldman, K. (1989, October 30). TV network news is making re-creation a form of recreation. Wall

Street Journal, p. A-4.

Goodwin, E. (1983). Groping for ethics in journalism. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

Gordon, J. (1980, July). Judgment days for words and pictures. News Photographer, p. 25.

Gordon, J. (1981, November). Fired. News Photographer, pp. 31-36.

Gordon, J. (1983, July). A question of ethics. News Photographer, pp. 11 - 17.

Gordon, J. (1986, March). Grief photo reaction stuns paper. News Photographer, pp. 17-25.

Gotcha! (1983, August). News Photographer, p. 22.

Grimm, J. (1989, January). Two tough questions. News Photographer, p. 31.

Grover, J. (1989, Summer). Visible lesions. Afterimage, pp. 10-16.

Grow, J. M. (1989, December). Anniston weather photos. News Photographer, p. 55.

Guidelines. (1989). NPPA Directory (p. 36). Durham, NC: NPPA.

Gwin, L. (1988). Prospective reporters face writing/editing tests at many dailies. Newspaper Research

Journal, 9, 101 -111.

Hansen, G. (1989). Denial of disaster. San Francisco: Cameron.

Hartley, C. (1982, January). Photographers, public view practices. News Photographer, p. 24.

Hartley, C. (1983, Summer). Ethical newsgathering values of the public and press photographers.

Journalism Quarterly, 60, 301-304.

Heimsohm, W. (1982, October). The enhancement effect. American Photographer, pp. 94-107.

Helping hands at fire calls. (1983, July). News Photographer, pp. 18-19.

Henderson, L. (1989). A selected annotated bibliography on image ethics. In L. Gross, J. Katz, & J.

Ruby (Eds.), Media ethics (pp. 91-107). New York: Oxford University Press.

Henning, A. (1932). Ethics and practices in journalism. New York: Ray Long & Richard Smith.

Hertzberg, M. (1979, February). Stress. News Photographer, p. 12.

Hesterman, V. (1988, November). By the numbers. News Photographer, pp. 21-24.

Hicks, W. (1973). Words and pictures. New York: Arno Press.

Hodge, B. (1989, January). Change in the reader and viewer. News Photographer, pp. 14-15.

Holland, D. (1989, November). Photographer's hassling by cops costs town $24,000. News Photographer, p. 4.

Horrell, C. W. (1955). Analysis of the recommendations for the education of newspaper photojournalism students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

Houdini, H. (1924). A magician among the spirits. New York: Harper.

Hoy, F. (1986). Photojournalism, the visual approach. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Hughes, R. (1989, October). Anatomy of a newspaper's decision. FineLine, p. 3.

Hulteng, 1. (1984). The messenger's motives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Hvidston, C. (1983, February). Of privacy and board members. News Photographer, p. 5.

"'Inside Story' inside photos." (1982, June). News Photographer, pp. 29-32.

Izard, R. (1985). Background of survey (Journalism Ethics Report, 1984-85). Society of Professional Journalists, Sigma Delta Chi ethics committee, Greencastle, IN.

Jaubert, A. (1986). Making people disappear. Washington, DC: Pergamon-Brassey's International Defense Publishers.

Jay, B. (1984). The photographer as aggressor. In D. Featherstone (Ed.), Observations (pp. 7-23). Carmel, CA: The Friends of Photography.

Johns, D. (1984, July). All about boo-boos. News Photographer, p. 8.

Jones, W. T., Sontag, F., Beckner, M. 0., & Fogelin, R. J. (Eds.). (1969). Approaches to ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Jussim, E. (1989). American photojournalism from 1880 to 1920. In M. Fulton (Ed.), Eyes of time photojournalism in America (pp. 36-73). Boston: New York Graphic Society Book.

Knightley, P. (1976). The first casualty. New York: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich.

Knocking on death's door. (1989, February 27). Time, p. 49.

Kobre, K. (1980). Photojournalism the professionals' approach. Boston: Focal Press.

Kochersberger, R. (1988, Summer). Survey of suicide photos use by newspapers in three states. Newspaper Research Journal, 9.

Lambeth, E. (1986). Committed journalism an ethic for the profession. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Lasica, J. D. (1989, June). Photographs that lie. Washington Journalism Review, p. 24.

Lee, E. (1989, September/ October). Rob Lowe cover: Spoof or dangerous deception? SixShooters, pp. 8-9.

Lester, P. (1988, Spring). Front page mug shots: A content analysis of five U.S. newspapers in 1986. Newspaper Research Journal, pp. 1-9.

Lester, P. (1989). The ethics of photojournalism: Toward a professional philosophy for photographers, editors and educators. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

Lester, P. (Ed.). (1990). NPPA special report: The ethics of photojournalism. Durham, NC: NPPA.

Lesy, M. (1976). Real life Louisville in the twenties. New York: Pantheon.

London editor dismissed for royal mistake. (1989, November 21). The Orlando Sentinel, p. A-2.

Long, J. (1989, November). Fakes, frauds and phonies. News Photographer, pp. 13-14.

Los Angeles Times. (November 18, 1978). p. 1.

MacDougall, C. (1940). Hoaxes. New York: Macmillan.

MacDougall, C. (1964). The press and its problems. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown.

MacDougall, C. (1971). News pictures fit to print ... or are they? Stillwater, OK: Journalistic Services.

Mallette, M. (1976, March). Should these news pictures have been printed? Popular Photography, pp. 75, 120.

Miller, S. (1975). The content of news photos: Women's and men's roles. Journalism Quarterly, 52, 70-75.

Mills, R. D. (1982, July). Newspaper journalists' perceptions of ethical decisions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism, Athens, OH.

Mills, R. D. (1983). Newspaper ethics: A qualitative study. Journalism Quarterly, 60, 589-594, 602.

Moeller, S. (1989). Shooting war. New York: Basic Books.

Moore, N. (1978, June). Drowning photos provoke a furor in Findlay. News Photographer, p. 54.

Morse, M. L. (Ed.). (1987). The electronic revolution in news photography. Durham, NC: NPPA.

Mott, F. (1962). American journalism. New York: Macmillan.

NBC puts an end to re-enactments of news events. (1989, November 21). The Orlando Sentinel, p. A-4.

Nelson, H., & Teeter, D. (1982). Law of mass communications. Mineola, NY: The Foundation Press.

Newhall, B. (1982). The history of photography. New York: The Museum of Modem Art.

NPPA Directory. (1989). Durham, NC: NPPA.

O'Connor, M. (1986, January). Fix-it with Scitex. How, pp. 44-49.

Ohm, K. (1980). Dorothea Lange and the documentary tradition. Baton Rouge: The Louisiana State

University Press.

On posing features. (1989, November). News Photographer, pp. 50-52.

150 years of photography pictures that made a difference. (1988, Fall). Life (whole issue).

150 years of photojournalism. (1989, Fall). Time, p. 2.

One person's gallery-Foolers by Cliff Yeich. (1985, July). News Photographer, pp. 8-9.

Orwell, G. (1949). 1984. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.

Padgett, G. (1985-1986, Fall/Winter). Codes should address exploitation of grief by photographers.

Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 50-56.

Pentagon probing consultant fees. (1988, November 4). The Orlando Sentinel, p. A- 11.

Photographer's pledge. (1982, March 25). New York Times, p. A-25.

Photographers give their guidelines. (1986, August). News Photographer, p. 24.

Photographers' caption error is devastating. (1986, September). News Photographer, pp. 54-57.

Pierce, B. (1983, November). Photographing violence. Popular Photography, p. 126.

Pollack, P. (1977). The picture history of photography. New York: Harry Abrams.

Pulitzer photos from Rhodesia are now subject of controversy. (1978, April 22). New York Times, p. 5.

Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Ray, F. (1961, October). The case of the rearranged corpse. Civil War Times, p. 19.

Readers object to gruesome page I photo. (1982, January). News Photographer, p. 2.

Reaves, S. (1987, January). Digital retouching. News Photographer, p. 31.

Reaves, S. (1989, October 6). Ethics: Report airs editors' debate on principles of pixels. The Electronic

Times, Section 2, p. 1.

The riot beat. (1976, August 14). Newsweek, p. 78.

Ritchin, F. (1984, November 4). Photography's new bag of tricks. The New York Times Magazine, p.


Rosenberg, J. (1989, March 25). Visual enhancement of photos. Editor & Publisher, p. 47.

Rothstein, A. (1961, September). The picture that became a campaign issue. Popular Photography, pp.


Rothstein, A. (1986). Documentary photography. Boston: Focal Press.

Salamone, D. (1988, April 11). Coping with tragedy's aftermath. The Orlando Sentinel, p. B- 1.

Sanders, B. (1986, February). A matter of image. News Photographer, p. 8.

Sherer, M. (1986, August). Bibliography of grief. News Photographer, pp. 23-38.

Sherer, M. (1986a, March). A problem of trespass. News Photographer, pp. 14-15.

Sherer, M. (1986b, March). Conduct is a key consideration. News Photographer, p. 26.

Sherer, M. (1987, January). Short course: Invasion of privacy. News Photographer, pp. 18, 22.

Shoot or help? (1980, February). News Photographer, p. 19.

Sipchen, B. (1989, October 28). Hot shots Rolling Stone shows off its family album. The Orlando

Sentinel, pp. E-1, E-3.

Spitzer, C., & Franklin, J. (1988, April 13). Rescuing rescue workers from stress. The Orlando Sentinel, p. E-4.

Squires, C. (1988, October). Seeing history as it happened. American Photographer, pp. 32-63.

Steele, R. (1987, Spring/Summer). Video ethics: The dilemma of value balancing. Journal of Mass

Media Ethics, 10 -11.

Stein, J. (1988, August 18). Seeing stars: Privacy and the press. The Orlando Sentinel, pp. E-1, E-6.

Stetmer, L. (1977). Weegee. New York: Alfred Knopf.

Strongman, T. (1987, January). More guidelines for invasions of privacy. News Photographer, pp. 20,


Strothers, B. (1989, November). Troubles with re-creating news. News Photographer, p. 25.

Symbol of depression dies at the age of 79. (1983, September 17). New York Times, p. 8.

Szarkowski, J. (1980). The photographer's eye. New York: The Museum of Modem Art.

Taft, R. (1938). Photography and the American scene. New York: Macmillan.

Tasteless breach. (1986, March). News Photographer, p. 27.

Tell, J. (Ed.). (1988). Making darkrooms saferooms. Durham, NC: NPPA.

Thall, L. (1988, November). Screen test. Photomethods, pp. 36-37.

Thernal, H. (1987, October 17). News photo provokes hundreds of complaints. Editor & Publisher, p. 11.

Van Gieson, J. (1989, December 1). Injury suit over TV ad tossed out. The Orlando Sentinel, p. D-9.

Vaughan, V. (1989, April 29). Ethical dilemma comes if news event also is a junket. The Orlando Sentinel, p. A-16.

Walkie-talkie rescue: Screams from below. (1983, October). News Photographer, p. 4.

Warning. (1986, October/November). 4Sight, pp. 7-11.

Weather 'photo opportunity' becomes near-tragedy. (1989, September). News Photographer, pp. 6, 10.

Weaver, D., & Wilhoit, C. (1986). The American journalist. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

What ever happened to ethics. (1987, May). Time, pp. 14-29.

Whose picture is it anyway? (1987, June). American Photographer, pp. 75-79.

Why tamper with perfection? (1989, November). News Photographer, p. 14.

Wilcox, W. (1961). The staged news photograph and professional ethics. Journalism Quarterly, 38, 497-504.

Wilson, J. (1989, November). Photographer, famous photo's subject hold reunion in Havana, Cuba. News Photographer, p. 6.

Zuckerman, L. (1989, February 27). Knocking on death's door. Time, p. 49.